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Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones. In Domingos Fernandes Ed. Realidades e perspetivas Vol I, pp. Trends that shape curriculum studies. Policies, perspectives and practices pp. Origem, fundamentos e percursos. In Marielda Pryjma Ed. Salvador da Bahia BR: Ensinar e aprender com tecnologias digitais no ensino superior. Alguns pontos para debate. In Carlinda Leite Ed. Leite, Carlinda, Lima, L.

New ways of pedagogical work using b-learning in higher education. International Association of Technology, Education and Development. In Rosa Bizarro Ed. Entre velhos desafios e novos compromissos: In Aida Silva et al. In Carlinda Leite Org. Prison education in Portugal: School breaking through prison Walls.

Institute for the Humanities Simon Fraser University. In Preciosa Fernandes Ed. A tessitura de um olhar multidisciplinar.

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Uso de Tecnologias Digitais por estudantes do Ensino Superior: O acesso e o sucesso dos estudantes no ensino superior. Lifelong learning through e-learning in European prisons: Rethinking digital and social inclusion. School evaluation and the improvement of curricular processes: Ethical development in higher education curricula: A study in Portuguese Engineering courses. Impacto e efeitos no desenvolvimento do trabalho docente. Which referents in Portugal and England. Higher Education policies in Portugal, in the post-Bologna period: External evaluation of schools in Portugal: Contextualizar o saber para a melhoria dos resultados dos alunos.


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Undergraduation students attitudes toward the use of concept maps in a Bacteriology curricular unit. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on concept mapping pp. In Carlinda Leite et al. IE — Universidade do Minho. In Silva et al. Facing the challenge to humanise scientific culture. Globalization and education - Towards a society of knowledge. Caminhos delineados na Universidade do Porto. Contextos de aprendizagem para uma sociedade do conhecimento pp.

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Ralf R Arte em Educação, Palavras & Ideias

Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Leite, Carlinda, Rocha, C. Pacheco, Jorge, Leite, Carlinda et al. As palavras mais do que os actos? Do discurso legal aos sentidos dos processos em curso. The work of the teacher, in this context, has a preponderant factor, for "the teacher, in order to perform the work in a way to reach their objectives, the establishment of the affection connection is practically mandatory".

Thus, it is understood that teachers build or rebuild their professional identity when they interact with the people around them, when reiterating personal and social conceptions about themselves and the profession, when negotiating and renegotiating their personal-professional identity, rendering this a process of constant development. Consequently, a defining element of the identity is permanent instability.

This becomes tiring and places them under constant pressure. Although, depression seems to be caused by thought processes when not of genetic origin and also becomes physical in other ways. Therefore, depression cannot be conceived as a moment of sadness, but a disease that causes neurochemical disorganization. However, the overall risk throughout life for a major depressive episode is double this prevalence. The condition is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, through not only committing suicide, but also owing to increased risk or worsened prognosis of other chronic so-called "organic" diseases.

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Coronary disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 represent two examples of well-established consequences. Signs and symptoms include the following: loss of weight or increased appetite; insomnia or hypersomnia; psychomotor retardation or agitation; fatigue or loss of energy; feeling of devaluation or disproportionate guilt; indecisiveness or loss of concentration or the capacity of thinking; suicidal ideation or suicide attempts, or constant thoughts about death.

From a morphofunctional perspective, regarding the neuronal circuits of depression, it is known that different brain regions mediate the diversity of the aforementioned symptoms in relation to depression. The dorsolateral PFC shows a decrease in metabolic and grey matter, where this region participates in interconnection with the portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in cognitive paths, and is also the core of working memory.

Thus, this region mediates apathy, psychomotor retardation and alterations in attention and working memory. It is also a mood modulator and crucial to the formation of new memories. The most common dysmorphology in major depression is a reduction in its mass, while some authors have also found changes in its segments or shape, implying a role in depression neu-robiology. The fundamental response of stress consists of the corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH and the locus coeruleus -noradrenaline system LC-NA , with the respective effector peripheral extensions: the hypotha-lamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA and the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, although the latter is not contiguous, but interconnected to the locus coeruleus -noradrenaline system LC-NA.

These two systems influence one another mutually and positively and are also counter-regulated by the hippocampus in prefrontal cortex - both having inhibitory aspects - and by the amygdale, with a stimulatory function. It is the latter that detects and integrates the "stress information" and may trigger the adaptation response through the effector systems. A paradigm has been developing from philosophical considerations to etiological considerations, based on scientific method and incorporating different approaches and hypotheses, all of which are complexly interconnected and undoubtedly incomplete.

It is noteworthy that according to Silva ,45 one is not born with an identity. This identity is built and involves the notion of its fixation with a process resulting from acts of linguistic creation. Thus, identity is a social and cultural instable creation, that is, it is in constant transformation. According to this author , p. The identity is instable, contradictory, fragmented, unconscious and unfinished. The identity is connected to discursive and narrative structures. It is also connected to systems of representations.

The identity has close connections with relations of power. Coupled with this question, that involves the construction of a professional identity, there remains another that refers to the influence of other cultures. To what extent is multiculturalism beneficial? Often times, this influence of culture of a foreign country can reach the point of interfering in the cultural identity of teachers, developing a sort of loss or devaluation or their own cultural identity.

António Nóvoa - Desafios do Trabalho e Formação Docentes

In other words, depending on how the culture of the foreign country is presented or subtly imposed, it may influence the habits of the social or professional life of a given culture. For example, the invasion of Hollywood movies seems to lead some Brazilians to overvalue cultural aspects of the United States of America. In accordance with this notion, regarding the attitude of teachers and students of English in relation to the American culture, an overly positive attitude and almost veneration have been observed.

This reinforces a historical feeling of inferiority and a devaluation complex of colonized countries in relation to the Colony. In the face of this reality, the author reinforces the need to look critically at the interests and ideologies passed by the industry of English teaching, so the teacher is not a collaborator in fostering the inequality conditions this knowledge produces in an underprivileged society. The situation of these teachers, who are people that deal with knowledge, seems to be a little more delicate, in the face of this bombardment of information that comes from post-modernity.

It seems that this professional is left to his fate. Given the above, this poses a question: is the sensation of helplessness a factor further weakening this professional today?


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Among the explored approaches in the psychoanalytic literature, two lines standout: the anthropological or phylogenetic and the mentalist or ontogenetic. In the former, the question was the passage from nature to culture and the corresponding process of "humaniza-tion". By contrast, in the mentalist or ontogenetic approach, the nature-culture passage is already assumed for the species, needing only to be carried out by each new individual.

Demarcated in this plan, the theory of the subject focuses on the study of stimulants or natural mental state precursors of individual subjectivity. Therefore, what differentiates the anthropological and mentalist approaches is the fact that in the former, culture is the product or something that accompanies the formation of the subject, while in the latter, culture is assumed as the generic and peripheral environment of subjectivity.

As marked as the overlaps among the approaches are, didactic separation is feasible. Of the two approaches, the mentalist is far more considered in the theory of the subject by Freud. In this thesis, Freud views the subject as a product of libidinal history, something moved by the demand of pleasure or by sexual stimulus.

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Described in these terms, the subject is something permanently exposed to demands which do not have natural and efficient responses, and in the absence of these see themselves, in certain contexts, as incorporating a feeling of lack of protection. It will be this state of helplessness that will drive him through life in search of support and safety. There is no specification of the stimuli and demands that act on the origin, less still of the prediction of the type of response that it will be evoked by each cause that affects the subject.

The paradigmatic illustrations of the state of human helplessness involve the cases of the initial dependence of a baby, due to the lack of motor and verbal coordination, and human impotence in the face of the suffering caused by natural forces, by fate and by other humans. It is in this helplessness state that the subject is born and lasts. Freud maintained the primacy of the sexuality thesis in subject theory, transforming it, little by little in the way of psychoanalytic thinking. The idea of helplessness was left to the wayside throughout Freud's work, thus composing the block of unsuccessful ideas in psychoanalysis.

And now helplessness comes to the fore once more. This situation seems to mean an individual is restricted from furthering their quality by say, going to the dentist periodically, taking care of their skin and hair and general health, visiting relatives and friends or prioritizing leisure.