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Translators use footnotes as a translational strategy for cultural divergence in the belief that learning new aspects of another culture provides an enriching experience. Footnotes may also reinforce cultural stereotypes and myths in the perception of the otherness of the Australian landscape and its inhabitants. As an alternative translation strategy for cultural divergence, definitions and clarifications can be embedded in the text to minimize distraction from the narrative.

The proliferation of references to flora and fauna in these examples suggests a strong interest in Australianness that is deemed worthy of retention and explanation by the translators as best they can. In these examples, translators have adopted processes well known in the translation of literature, whereby relating the unknown to the known, and supplying the general for the specific minimize the foreignness of the text. In exploring exotic foreign lands in general, and the colonies of the new French empire specifically, scientists and naturalists provided detailed inventories and artwork depicting plants, animals, tools and indigenous inhabitants Osborne In a similar literary voyage, the French translator here has taken a keen interest in the exotic creature of the Australian landscape, and has identified the echidna as worthy of detailed examination.

Whereas this first set of examples has illustrated translation strategies of retention and enhancement of the cultural specificity of the text, the following section concentrates on translations that choose to minimize, adapt or delete Australian cultural specificity. These contrasting choices by translators are evidence of the coexistence of several norms of translation. Translations interested in Australianness as landscape may at the same time reflect a lack of curiosity concerning local aspects of life in Australia. This novel is a local regional story strongly anchored in place and time, with detailed descriptions of the local world against a background of the general Australian landscape.

There is an extreme concern by the translator with typicality, locality and point-of-view, with divergence occurring only when the English becomes too local. Where the original text describes nature or the landscape, the translator uses the same metaphors in an attempt to stay as close as possible to the original text. However, in instances where the local world is described in minute detail, the translation downplays the concrete language and imposes a general structure of intelligibility on what is local or rooted regionally.

For example, the vocabulary of the local world depicting harvest time and fruit picking is suppressed in the translation. In this work, the primary interest of the translator is the landscape, whereby Australianness is equated with a paradise or a Garden of Eden. The suppression of the human world, the world of work, is in contrast to the exploitation of the natural world, the world of exoticism. References to the Australian landscape can also be present in the form of metaphors and similes that are highlighted or deleted in translation.

In the following set of examples, the translator has consistently deleted the Australian referent:. Ayers Rock is considered to be one of the three great icons of Australia, the other two being the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Opera House. These three icons of Australia abound in tourist brochures and are instantly recognizable by many people throughout the world. For this very reason, it is all the more intriguing that the translator deleted such a marked feature of Australianness.

In examples from Gleitzman, translating the specificity of Queensland has resulted in a variety of geographically loose and neutral references. Apart from examples of Australianness as flora and fauna, we also have people whose relationship with the landscape bestows connotations of Australianness, such as swagmen. The use of these neutral terms explains why there is deletion from the early part of the passage of the tin can and canvas bag, for otherwise there would be needless repetition of the general items.

In a similar way to the notion of a swagman, the notions of a settler and an outlaw cause problems for French translators as they carry connotations of frontiers and the wild west, and can lead to translations that reveal constructs borrowed from American history. This example also reinforces the influence of French preoccupations with exploration and with individuals who epitomize the aventurier model. This example from Carey highlights another choice in the negotiation of Australianness whereby translators find a normative solution by reverting to a familiar model in literature.

Translators are equally aware of these models and will revert not only to the common model, but also on occasions to the French version of such models. Just as common models exert influence on French translations, so do cultural borrowings. Constructs borrowed from American history in the example from Carey are representative of a consistent process in the translation of Australian works whereby Australia is described via American culture. Even when translating simple television shows, there is evidence to suggest that French children are more familiar with popular culture in the United States than in Australia, as rough equivalents are substituted via American culture.

The perception of Australia as a younger version of America draws from traditions of nineteenth-century dime novels of adventure and frontier narratives, and the genre of the American western in literature and in film has been noted by theorists as instrumental in the building of nationhood and culture Monaghan Equally crucial to the development of the Australian character, the concept of the landscape as a frontier Ward invites speculation on the influence of American pioneering traditions in the mythologizing and propagation of fantasies about Australia by French translators.

In the reading of Australian rural fiction as derivative of the American western genre, French translators stress themes of domination of the landscape, mapping the void, ownership and power. These themes are illustrated in detail in the section discussing heightened images of Australia in translation. The mission civilisatrice of French colonialism may well account for the significant number of selections featuring colonial settings and recall earlier French literature of adventure set in colonial Australia, such as the works of Jules Verne.

In the following example, the translator has understood the tone of mock seriousness in the original text and has translated it competently as the discourse of Republican citizenship. This example provides an overview of the tendencies and strategies most prevalent in our corpus. The overall effect of this highly stylized translation is the transformation of the mock pomposity of the English text into a passage espousing Republican citizenship. The translator has used a change in register and discourse to pursue the topic of human rights and citizenship, employing intensified language associated with legal and unionized proceedings.

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Repetition is a heavily used strategy in both passages, and even though the rhetorical form is used in the original on six occasions four in French , what is an appeal to moral sense in the English text becomes an exposition of the rights of citizens in French. Mildly present in the original, the discourse of chivalry is grafted onto the translated passage through the combination of formal terms, metaphors and allusions to behavior consistent with heroic men in the legends of the Knights of the Round Table , Camelot and Sleeping Beauty.

Totally consistent with euphemistic tendencies already observed in French translations Frank , the translated passages remove sexual references and marked terms:.

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These two examples from Keneally show that constructs and borrowings can come from within French culture as well as from outside, and that the constructs and borrowings are likely to be embedded in discourse-specific language. The next section takes up the theme of French interests in Australia as expressed through preoccupations with Australian specificity. The following examples illustrate the difficulty in determining whether translators have deliberately omitted Australian content or have simply placed greater importance on the acceptability of the text.

The book is an interesting example of heavy deletion on the part of the translator, with several pages of many chapters of the source text omitted in translation. Laurence Sterne , par Sir Joshua Reynolds.


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    John Arbuthnot , par John Kneller. It is intended as a satire on mankind, and by the reeption it has met with in private fromthe best judges here I have reason to belive it will succed very well. As I have long disposed of the copy, I belive some hundrreds will be sent to Scotland. I panted for want of breath, and in short, was for some moment intranced!

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    Be that as it will, I scorned to prostitute my pen in the manner proposed, and carried my papers to a third, who assured me that poetry was entirely out of his way; and asked me if I had got never a piece of secret history, thrown into a series of letters, or a volume of adventures, such as those of Robinson Crusoe , and Colonel Jack , or a collection of Conundrums , wherewith to entertain the plantations. Take a fiacre and say ' P.

    They have. But I knew the dog. He too had recognized the soi-disant Henry Robinson. Of course Legros had only done his duty--curse him. Curse him a thousand times for a blackguardly, brutal ruffian. The girl was going to faint. Her wedding-ring looked brand-new. Jean," he reflected. If he survives that, which is improbable, he will finish his five years of Legion service. No--she won't see much of him during the next decade.

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    Poor little soul! This lady is my wife. We have been married a week. I beg of you to see her safe on board the P. A fat and kindly Frenchman, who understood English, translated for the benefit of the crowd. It became intensely sympathetic--at least with the girl. The French, for some reason, imagine their Foreign Legion to be composed of Germans, and the French do not love Germans. If they once got him inside Fort St.

    Jean the clearing-house for drafts and details going to, and coming from, Algeria--recruits, convalescents, leave-expired, all sorts; Legionaries, Zouaves, Turcos, Spahis, Tirailleurs he was done. In a short time he would be a convict, in military-convict dress, enduring the living-death of existence in the Zephyrs, the terrible Disciplinary Battalion, compared with whose lot that of the British long-sentence convict at Dartmoor, Portland, or Wormwood Scrubbs is a bed of roses in the lap of luxury.

    After that--back to the Legion if he were alive to finish his five years, of which there were four unexpired.